THE TRUTH ABOUT ASYMMETRIC RF BOMBS: CUBA
By Manuel Cereijo
Cuba has surprising talent and experience in the areas of electronics, computers, computer software and data processing. The country benefited from its association with the former Soviet Union, and some European countries, which turned out many skilled electrical and computer engineers, as well as technicians.
Cuba's electronic industry has its origins in the mid-1960s when the Ministry for Iron and Steel Machinery (SIME) began assembly of radios from imported parts. In 1974 SIME started producing black-and-white television sets. Then came a plant to produce batteries (1975), telephone switchboards (1981), and color television sets (1985). In 1985 SIME also started production of semiconductors.
In 1976 a separate electronics institute was created, the National Institute of Automated Systems and Computer Skills (INSAC). In 1994 INSAC was incorporated into the newly created Ministry of Steel, Heavy Machinery and Electronics. The Ministry of Communications is also responsible for small-scale production of certain electronics-related products.
The entity Cuba Electronica was created in January 1986 as part of the Foreign Trade Ministry. It is responsible for importing electronic equipment and exporting computers, peripherals, semiconductors and software.
An Irish expert says that the Cuban information-technology industry matches that of the Republic of Ireland, which has been particularly successful in persuading a range of information technology companies to establish their European base in Cuba.
One of the most advanced areas of the electronics industry in Cuba is production of medical equipment. The Central Institute for Digital Research(ICID) in collaboration with the Biotechnology Centers, has developed high technology medical equipment including the Cardiocid-M, an electro-cardiographic system for diagnosing cardiovascular system diseases; Neorocid, an electromyographic and electro-neurographic system for diagnosing peripheric nervous system diseases, and various applications for high- technology genetic engineering research.
The main developments of Cuba's electronic industry occurred between 1975 and 1989. Among others:
· Computer equipment plant, established in 1978, with a 4,300 square meters production area· Printed circuit board plant, established 1982, with a 4,900 square meters production area· Electronic modules production plant, with 4,000 square meters production area· Mechanical production plant, with 7,500square meters production area · Monitors and television set plant, establishedin 1975, with an annualcapacity of 100,000 units
· Alphanumeric keyboards plant, established in 1988, equipped to produce keyboards compatible with IBM, DEC and other microcomputer systems. Production capacity of 250,000 units per year· Printed circuit boards plant, which can produce 35,000 square meters per year of circuit boards. It uses Betamax material and carries out the printing by serigraphy.
· Electronic Research and Development Center, established in 1985.
· Electronic Components Complex, (CCE), produces active and passive components, established in 1985.· Medical equipment complex, established in 1989. Produces instruments and equipment for the Biotechnology Centers.
Computing in Cuba dates back to the mid- 1950s when two first generation U.S. computers were installed. During the 1960s came computers from France, followed by Soviet and East- European systems. During the 1970s Cuba embarked on a program to develop its own second minicomputers based on Digital's PDP-11.
Most of Cuba's early computer specialists were trained in East Germany and the Soviet Union. In mid 1980s two main centers of computational research were established one at the CUJAE and the other at Universidad Central de Las Villas.
These are all facts.
Cuba has also developed computer networks. Presently, there are four networks with international connectivity: CENIAI, Tinored, CIGBnet, Infomed. CENIAI began networking in 1986, and has had a UUCP link to the Internet since 1992. They currently offer email, database access, and programming and consulting services. CIGBnet is the network of the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. It began in 1991 and provides email, database access, a biological sequence server.
Since 1991,there has been a surplus of electrical and computer engineers in Cuba due to the closing of many industries. Many of these engineers changed their lines of work to the areas of telecommunications espionage and computer interference and disruption, in special centers created by the government.
A large group of them received specialized training in Russia, Vietnam, North Korea and China As a result, a significant engineering and technical staff is now dedicated to research, development and application on these areas
These are facts.
Conclusion? Cuba has an outstanding technical manpower to develop high tech electronic asymmetric RF bombs.
WHAT ARE THESE RF BOMBS?
The main high tech asymmetric weapons are: DEW, or Direct Energy Weapons, HERF, or High Energy Radio Frequency Weapons, EMP, Electro-Magnetic Pulse Weapons.
LERF technology utilizes relatively low energy, which is spread over a wide frequency spectrum. LERF impact on computers and computer networks could be devastating. HERF is much more advanced technology, still in the development process, one area where Cuba and North Korea are working together on this project. A stronger bomb than LERF, HERF can stop vehicles at several hundred meters from the antenna source.
Changes of last decade in Russia impacted the KGB, which has been split into independents parts. The 8th and 16th Directorates, roughly representing Russian equivalent of the NSA, became an independent agency, the Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information ( FAPSI, as a Russian acronym). FAPSI is directly subordinate to the President of Russia. FAPSI has been partially privatized. Some of the leading FAPSI experts left the agency and founded private companies. Many of these companies have provided consulting to the governments of Iraq and Cuba, among others. Some of the personnel stayed in Cuba, living in La Habana del Este.
Cuba has facilities to develop these RF weapons in: Bejucal, Guines, and Santiago de Cuba. Presently they are working also with the assistance of military personnel from the PRC. The United States should start a massive development of protective steps against RF weapons, at least for the most critical infrastructure computers.